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the evidence

Refugee-led organizations (RLOs) are successful because they have an awareness outsiders don’t have, and are driving solutions for people outsiders can’t reach. 

Evidence Base for the Impact and Importance of Refugee-Led Organizations:

Barnett, M.N. (2013). “Humanitarian Governance.” The Annual Review of Political Science 16: pp.

379-98. Available at:



Bekaj, A. and Antara, L. (2018). Political Participation of Refugees: Bridging the Gaps. Stockholm:

IDEA. Available at: https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/political-participation-of-refugees-bridging-the-gaps.pdf.


Betts, A. and Jones, W. (2016). Mobilising the Diaspora: How Refugees Challenge

Authoritarianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at: 



Bradley, M., Milner, J., and Peruniak, B. (2019). Refugees’ Roles in Resolving Displacement and

Building Peace: Beyond Beneficiaries. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Available at: http://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvfrxq90


Clarke, K. “The Politics of Refugee Relief.” Dissent 63(3): pp. 94-101. Available at:



Crutchfield, L.R. (2018). How Change Happens: Why Some Social Movements Succeed While

Others Don’t. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Available at: https://www.wiley.com/en-us/How+Change+Happens%3A+Why+Some+Social+Movements+Succeed+While+Others+Don%27t-p-9781119413813.


Development Initiatives (2019). Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2019. Bristol, UK:

Development Initiatives, Ltd. Available at:



Easton-Calabria, E., Betts, A., and Pincock K. (2020). “Refugee-led Organisations: Collective

action for collective assistance.” Rethinking Refuge. Refugee Studies Centre, University

of Oxford. Available at:



---. (2020). The Global Governed? Refugees as Providers of Protection and Assistance.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at: 



Ejorh, T. (2014). “The Challenge of Resilience: Migrant-Led Organisations and the Recession in

Ireland.” Journal of International Migration and Integration 16(3): pp. 679-99. Available

at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-014-0361-5.


Griffiths, D., Sigona, N., and Zetter, R. (2006). “Integrative Paradigms, Marginal Reality: Refugee

Community Organisations and Dispersal in Britain.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration

Studies 32(5): pp. 881-98. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830600704529.


Hakiza, R. et. al. (2020). “Refugee groups fill gaps in COVID-19 response, and they need

support.” The New Humanitarian. 29 April. Available at:



Hopkins, G. (2006). “Somali Community Organizations in London and Toronto: Collaboration and

Effectiveness.” Journal of Refugee Studies 19(3): pp. 361-80. Available at: